Rule of threes, Rule of viewpoints-dramatic angle looking up at viewpoint of horses, triangles, rule of diagonals-as the horse is leaning forward and this relates motion, leaving space in front to move into also gives the feeling of motion, there is the rule of using pattern - in the leg shapes; everywhere you look you see a dynamic rule in play!
Using The Rule of Thirds
The basic theory goes like this: the human eye tends to be more interested in images that are divided into thirds, with the subject falling at or along one of those divisions. Two ways to use the rule, divide the spaces in threes, or place the object of focus on the intersection of the third grid lines as to the left.
Rule of Odd numbers
The eye tends to be more comfortable with images that contain an odd number of elements rather than an even number. As a photographer, you want your viewer to look at a subject, not at an empty space.
Rule of Threes
Using three of anything is pleasing to the eye.
This rule incorporates two very similar ideas: breathing room and implied movement. If your subject is looking at something make sure there is some "space" for him to look into or move into.
Fill the Frame
The "fill the frame" rule, on the other hand, simply means that you're looking for distracting background elements and cropping them out whenever you can.
For example, an image of an old woman with interesting facial lines and features who is standing on a busy street corner will probably warrant filling the frame. But if you want to capture context - say that old woman is standing in the quirky second-hand shop she's owned for 50 years - you may not want to use that "fill the frame" rule, because you'll want to capture her with her environment instead.
As a general rule, simple images tend to be more appealing than complicated ones. This idea is similar to the previous "fill the frame rule," in that it demands that you get rid of distracting elements in your photo (see how all these rules are related)? To use this compositional rule, simply ask yourself this question: does that element add to my composition? If it doesn't, get rid of it.
This is one of those rules that almost all beginning photographers break. Sometimes we get so wrapped up in our subject that we don't pay any attention to what's going on behind them. If the background is busy and doesn't add anything to your composition, try using a wider aperture so those distracting elements will become a non-descript blur (wide apertures cause shallow depth of field, creating blurry backgrounds)! Or you can just try changing your angle. (Instead of shooting the subject with all those beach-goers right behind her, angle her so that she's in front of the water instead.)
Especially when you are using the rule of thirds or the golden ratio, sometimes an image needs balance. A photo with a large subject positioned in the foreground at one of those sweet spots may end up creating an image that looks tilted, or too heavy on one side. You can create some balance by including a less important, smaller-appearing element in the background.
The rule of leading lines says that the human eye is drawn into a photo along lines--whether they are curved, straight, diagonal or otherwise. A line - whether geometric or implied - like edges, can bring your viewer's eye into an image and take it wherever you want it to go. If your image doesn't have clear lines you will need something else to let the viewer know where to look, otherwise the eye might just drift around the image without ever landing on any one spot
Diagonal lines in particular can be useful in creating movement and drama in your image. They can also add a sense of depth, or a feeling of infinity.
Pattern can be very visually compelling because it suggests harmony and rhythm, and things that are harmonious and rhythmic make us feel a sense or order or peace. Pattern can become even more compelling when you break the rhythm - then the eye has a specific focal point to fall upon, followed by a return to that harmonic rhythm.
Texture is another way of creating dimension in a photograph. By zooming in on a textured surface - even a flat one - you can make it seem as if your photograph lives in three dimensions. Texture adds interest and detail.
Symmetrical designs are an excellent excuse for you to break the rule of thirds. There are a couple of ways you can take advantage of symmetry, which can be found in nature as well as in man-made elements. First, look for symmetrical patterns that are in unexpected places. Second, look for symmetrical patterns with strong lines, curves and patterns. The more visually beautiful your subject is the more appealing it will be as a symmetrical image.
Using the rule of Viewpoints; in other words purposely changing your viewpoint from the most convenient one (not being sort of being lazy about it - like shooting out a car window or shooting from the your own height all the time) can dramatically change the mood of a photograph. Let's take an image of a child as an example. Shot from above, a photograph of a child makes her appear diminutive, or less than equal to the viewer. Shot from her level, the viewer is more easily able to see things from her point of view. In this case the viewer becomes her equal rather than her superior. But shoot that same child from below and suddenly there's a sense of dominance about the child.
In photography, the term "natural frame" doesn't necessarily mean a natural object. A natural frame can be a doorway, an archway - or the branches of a tree or the mouth of a cave. Using natural frames is a trick that will isolate your subject from the rest of the image, leading the viewer's eyes straight to the place you want it to go.
Many beginning photographers make the mistake of shooting everything with horizontal orientation. This is short sighted and easy to correct by following this simple rule: when an image contains a lot of horizontal lines, us a horizontal orientation. When it contains strong vertical lines, use a vertical orientation. This of course is another one of those "guideline" rules (as they all are, really), because you can take excellent shots of vertical lines in a horizontal frame, and vice-versa. But the choice is, as always, going to depend on what you want that final image to say.